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Second, in an era in which the growing numbers of immigrants pose new policy issues, there is an increasing need for research of these populations, together with research into the indigenous population.Furthermore, the need to aggregate data from two or more cultures in clinical trials regarding the efficacy and effectiveness of procedures and medications explains the rise in demand for translated instruments, much less the need for such instruments.The following general guidelines should be considered in this process: A bilingual (in English and the target language for translation) expert panel should be convened by a designated editor-in-chief.The goal in this step is to identify and resolve the inadequate expressions/concepts of the translation, as well as any discrepancies between the forward translation and the existing or comparable previous versions of the questions if any.This method has been refined in the course of several WHO studies to result in the following guidelines.One translator, preferably a health professional, familiar with terminology of the area covered by the instrument and with interview skills should be given this task.
Given the vast range of abusable substances and the complexity of individual behavior, not every assessment context can be specified nor can efficacy be guaranteed, but the course will offer the clinician useful ideas and tools for responding to a wide spectrum of substance use disorders and concerns.This work builds on the prior research related to IS success by summarizing the measures applied to the evaluation of IS success and by examining the relationships that comprise the D&M IS success model in both individual and organizational contexts.).However, fears about economic conditions and increasing competition create pressures to cut costs, which require organizations to measure and examine the benefits and costs of technology.IS are developed using IT to aid an individual in performing a task.Given the relatively short life-span of the IS field, it is quite remarkable the number and variety of applications and systems that have been deployed. Organizations focus on developing, using, and evaluating utilitarian IS.
Since De Lone and Mc Lean (D&M) developed their model of IS success, there has been much research on the topic of success as well as extensions and tests of their model.